QA–QC Arena – Software Testing Home for beginners and experts

Test Levels

Test Level
It includes…
Component Testing (Unit/Module/Program Testing)
Component Testing verifies the functioning of software (e.g. modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable.

Stubs & Drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components.

Stub – Stub is called from the software component to be tested / Stub is called program.
Driver – Driver calls a component to be tested / Driver is caller program.

Test–First Approach or Test–Driven Development is used in Component Testing.
Component Testing includes
  • Functional Testing (Functionality Testing)
  • Non–Functional Testing (Performance Testing)
  • Structural Testing (Decision Coverage)
  • Regression Testing (testing of changes)
Integration Testing
Integration Testing tests interfaces between components, and interfaces between systems.
Component Integration Testing tests the interactions between software components and is done after component testing.
System Integration Testing tests the interactions between different systems and may be done after system testing.

Approaches to Integration Testing –
1. Big-bang Integration Testing
All components or systems are integrated simultaneously and after that everything is tested as a whole.
  • Advantage – Everything is finished before integration testing starts; no need to simulate parts.
  • Disadvantage – It is time-consuming and difficult to trace the cause of failures with this late integration.
2. Incremental Integration Testing
All programs are integrated one by one, and a test is carried out after each step.
  • Advantage – The defects are found early in a smaller assembly when it is relatively easy to detect the cause.
  • Disadvantage – It can be time-consuming since stubs and drivers have to be developed and used in the test.
Incremental Integration Testing possibilities
  • Top-down – Testing takes place from top to bottom, following the control flow or architectural structure (e.g. starting from the GUI or main menu). Components or systems are substituted by stubs.
  • Bottom-up – Testing takes place from the bottom of the control flow upwards. Components or systems are substituted by drivers.
  • Functional incremental – Integration and testing takes place on the basis of the functions or functionality, as documented in the functional specification.
Integration testing may be carried out by the developers or by a separate team of specialist integration testers.
Integration Testing includes
  • Functional Testing (Functionality Testing of integration between different components or systems)
  • Non–Functional Testing (Performance Testing)
  • Structural Testing
  • Regression Testing (testing of changes)

System Testing
System Testing is concerned with the behavior of the whole system/product as defined by the scope of a development project or product.

System testing requires a controlled test environment and it should correspond to the final target or production environment as much as possible in order to minimize the risk of environment-specific failures not being found by testing.
System Testing includes
  • Functional Testing (Functionality Testing)
  • Non–Functional Testing (Performance & Reliability Testing)
  • Structural Testing (to assess the thoroughness of testing elements such as menu dialog structure or web page navigation)
  • Regression Testing (testing of changes)
Acceptance Testing
The goal of acceptance testing is to establish confidence in the system.
It is focused on a validation type of testing, whereby we are trying to determine whether the system is fit for purpose.
Finding defects should not be the main focus in acceptance testing.
The execution of the acceptance test requires a test environment that is for most aspects, representative of the production environment.
Acceptance testing may occur at more than just a single level.
User Acceptance Test – It focuses mainly on the functionality thereby validating the fitness-for-use of the system by the business user.  User acceptance test is performed by the users and application managers.
Operational Acceptance Test (Production Acceptance Test) – It validates whether the system meets the requirements for operation.  System administration will perform the operational acceptance test shortly before the system is released. The operational acceptance test may include testing of backup/restore, disaster recovery, maintenance tasks and periodic check of security vulnerabilities.
Contract Acceptance Testing – It is performed against a contract's acceptance criteria for producing custom-developed software.
Compliance Acceptance Testing – Compliance acceptance testing or regulation acceptance testing is performed against the regulations which must be adhered to, such as governmental, legal or safety regulations.
Alpha Testing – It takes place at the developer’s site. A cross-section of potential users and members of the developer's organization are invited to use the system. Developers observe the users and note problems. Alpha testing may also be carried out by an independent test team.
Beta Testing – Beta testing, or field testing, sends the system to a cross-section of users who install it and use it under real-world working conditions. The users send records of incidents with the system to the development organization where the defects are repaired.
Acceptance Testing includes
  • Functional Testing (Functionality Testing)
  • Non–Functional Testing (Performance & Reliability Testing)

Testing Glossary – II

Test Policy – A high level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.

Test Strategy – A high level description of the test levels to be performed and testing within those levels for an organization or program.

Test Approach – The implementation of the test strategy for a specific project. It typically includes the decisions made based on the project’s goal and the risk assessment carried out, starting points regarding the process, the test design techniques to be applied, exit criteria and test types to be performed.

Coverage (Test Coverage) – The degree, expressed as a percentage, to which a specified coverage item has been exercised by a test suite.

Exit Criteria – The set of generic and specific conditions, agreed upon with stakeholders, for permitting a process to be officially completed. The purpose of exit criteria is to prevent a task from being considered completed when there are still outstanding parts of the task which have not been finished. Exit criteria are used by testing to report against and to plan when to stop testing.

Test Control – A test management task that deals with developing and applying a set of corrective actions to get a test project on track when monitoring shows a deviation from what was planned.

Test Monitoring – A test management task that deals with the activities related to periodically checking the status of a test project. Reports are prepared that compare the actual status to that which was planned.

Test Condition – An item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g. a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element.

Test Design Specification – A document specifying the test conditions (coverage items) for a test item, the detailed test approach and the associated high–level test cases.

Test Procedure Specification (Test Script, Manual Test Script) – A document specifying a sequence of actions for the execution of a test.

Test Suite – A set of several test cases for a component or system under test, where the post condition of one test is often used as the precondition for the next one.

Test Execution – The process of running a test by the component or system under test, producing actual results.

Test Log – A chronological record of relevant details about the execution of tests.

Incident – Any event occurring that requires investigation.

Re-testing / Confirmation Testing – Testing that runs test cases that failed the last time they were run, in order to verify the success of corrective actions.

Regression Testing – Testing of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software as a result of the changes made.
It is the testing done to ensure that changed functionality is not affecting unchanged functionality.

Test Summary Report – A document summarizing testing activities and results. It also contains an evaluation of the corresponding test items against exit criteria.

Testware – Artifacts produced during the test process required to plan, design, and execute tests, such as documentation, scripts, inputs, expected results, set–up and clear–up procedures, files, databases, environment, and any additional software or utilities used in testing.

Independence – Separation of responsibilities, which encourages the accomplishment of objective testing.